What is Osteoporosis Explanation – Symptoms and Causes
Osteoporosis causes bone diseases to become weak and brittle — so brittle that a fall as well as mild stresses such as for example bending over or coughing can cause a fracture. Osteoporosis-related fractures most commonly occur in the hip, wrist or spine.
Bone is living tissue that is constantly being broken down and replaced. Osteoporosis occurs when the creation of new bone doesn’t maintain the increasing loss of old bone.
Osteoporosis affects men and women of most races. But white and Asian women — especially older women who’re past menopause — are in highest risk. Medications, healthy diet and weight-bearing exercise can help bone disease prevention or strengthen already weak bones.
There typically are no symptoms in early stages of bone loss. But once your bones have already been weakened by osteoporosis, you might have signs and symptoms offering:
Back pain, the result of a fractured or collapsed vertebra
Loss in height over time
A stooped posture
A bone that breaks much more easily than expected
When to see a doctor
You might want to talk to your doctor about osteoporosis in the event that you went through early menopause or took corticosteroids for almost a year at any given time, or if either of one’s parents had hip fractures.
Comparing the inner of a healthy bone with one that’s become porous from osteoporosis.Osteoporosis weakens bone Open pop-up dialog boxYour bones have been in a consistent state of renewal — new bone is manufactured and old bone is broken down. When you’re young, your body makes new bone faster than it reduces old bone and your bone mass increases. After early 20s this method slows, and most people reach their peak bone mass by age 30. As people age, bone mass is lost faster than it’s created.
How likely you’re to develop osteoporosis depends partly on how much bone mass you attained in your youth. Peak bone mass is somewhat inherited and varies also by ethnic group. The bigger your peak bone mass, the more bone you have “in the lender” and the not as likely you are to develop osteoporosis as you age.
Several factors can boost the likelihood that you’ll develop osteoporosis — including your age, race, lifestyle choices, and medical conditions and treatments.
Some risk factors for osteoporosis are out of your control, including:
Your sex. Women are much more likely to develop osteoporosis than are men.
Age. The older you receive, the higher your risk of osteoporosis.
Race. You’re at greatest risk of osteoporosis if you’re white or of Asian descent.
Family history. Having a parent or sibling with osteoporosis puts you at greater risk, particularly if your mother or father fractured a hip.
Body frame size. Men and women who have small body frames are apt to have an increased risk because they might have less bone mass to draw from as they age.
Osteoporosis is more common in people who have an excessive amount of or inadequate of certain hormones in their bodies. Examples include:
Sex hormones. Lowered sex hormone levels tend to weaken bone. The reduced amount of estrogen levels in women at menopause is among the strongest risk factors for developing osteoporosis. Men have a gradual reduction in testosterone levels because they age. Treatments for prostate cancer that reduce testosterone levels in men and treatments for breast cancer that reduce estrogen levels in women are likely to accelerate bone loss.
Thyroid problems. An excessive amount of thyroid hormone may cause bone loss. This may occur if your thyroid is overactive or if you take an excessive amount of thyroid hormone medication to take care of an underactive thyroid.
Other glands. Osteoporosis has been related to overactive parathyroid and adrenal glands.
Osteoporosis is more prone to occur in people who have:
Low calcium intake. A lifelong insufficient calcium plays a function in the development of osteoporosis. Low calcium intake plays a part in diminished bone density, early bone loss and an elevated risk of fractures.
Eating disorders. Severely restricting food intake and being underweight weakens bone in both men and women.
Gastrointestinal surgery. Surgery to cut back how big your stomach or to remove area of the intestine limits the amount of surface area open to absorb nutrients, including calcium. These surgeries include those to assist you lose weight and for other gastrointestinal disorders.
Steroids and other medications
Long-term utilization of oral or injected corticosteroid medications, such as for instance prednisone and cortisone, inhibits the bone-rebuilding process. Osteoporosis has been connected with medications used to combat or prevent:
The chance of osteoporosis is higher in people who have certain medical problems, including:
Inflammatory bowel disease
Kidney or liver disease
Some bad habits can increase your danger of osteoporosis. Examples include:
Sedentary lifestyle. People who spend lots of time sitting have a higher risk of osteoporosis than do those who find themselves more active. Any weight-bearing exercise and activities that promote balance and good posture are good for your bones, but walking, running, jumping, dancing and weightlifting seem particularly helpful.
Excessive alcohol consumption. Regular consumption in excess of two alcoholic drinks each day increases your danger of osteoporosis.
Tobacco use. The actual role tobacco plays in osteoporosis isn’t clear, but it’s been shown that tobacco use contributes to weak bones.
How osteoporosis may cause vertebrae to crumple and collapse.Compression fractures Open pop-up dialog boxBone fractures, particularly in the spine or hip, are the absolute most serious complications of osteoporosis. Hip fractures often are caused by a fall and can lead to disability and even an increased danger of death within the very first year after the injury.
Sometimes, spinal fractures can occur even although you haven’t fallen. The bones which make up your spine (vertebrae) can weaken to the point of crumpling, which can result in back pain, lost height and a hunched forward posture.
Good nutrition and frequent exercise are essential for keeping your bones healthy during your life.
Protein is one of the blocks of bone. However, there’s conflicting evidence concerning the impact of protein intake on bone density.
Many people get a lot of protein in their diets, however, many do not. Vegetarians and vegans can get enough protein in the dietary plan should they intentionally seek suitable sources, such as for example soy, nuts, legumes, seeds for vegans and vegetarians, and dairy and eggs for vegetarians.
Older adults might eat less protein for various reasons. If you believe you’re not getting enough protein, ask your doctor if supplementation is an option.
Being underweight increases the opportunity of bone loss and fractures. Unwanted weight has become known to improve the chance of fractures in your arm and wrist. As such, maintaining a suitable bodyweight will work for bones just because it is for health in general.
Men and women between the ages of 18 and 50 need 1,000 milligrams of calcium a day. This daily amount increases to 1,200 milligrams when women turn 50 and men turn 70.
Good resources of calcium include:
Low-fat milk products
Dark green leafy vegetables
Canned salmon or sardines with bones
Soy products, such as for instance tofu
Calcium-fortified cereals and orange juice
If you find it difficult to get enough calcium from your diet plan, consider taking calcium supplements. However, an excessive amount of calcium has been connected to kidney stones. Although yet unclear, some experts suggest that an excessive amount of calcium especially in supplements can increase visit the following website page risk of heart disease.
The Health and Medicine Division of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) recommends that total calcium intake, from supplements and diet combined, should really be no more than 2,000 milligrams daily for people older than 50.
Vitamin D improves your body’s capability to absorb calcium and improves bone health in other ways. People can get some of these vitamin D from sunlight, but this could not be considered a good source if you reside in a high latitude, if you’re housebound, or if you regularly use sunscreen or steer clear of the sun because of the threat of skin cancer.
To get enough vitamin D to steadfastly keep up bone health, it’s recommended that adults ages 51 to 70 get 600 international units (IU) and 800 IU per day after age 70 through food or supplements.
People without other resources of vitamin D and especially with limited sun exposure might desire a supplement. Most multivitamin products contain between 600 and 800 IU of vitamin D. Around 4,000 IU of vitamin D per day is safe for some people.
Exercise can help you build strong bones and slow bone loss. Exercise may benefit your bones regardless of whenever you start, however you will gain the absolute most benefits if you start exercising regularly when you’re young and continue steadily to exercise through your life.
Combine strength training exercises with weight-bearing and balance exercises. Resistance training helps strengthen muscles and bones in your arms and upper spine. Weight-bearing exercises — such as walking, jogging, running, stair climbing, skipping rope, skiing and impact-producing sports — affect mainly the bones in your legs, hips and lower spine. Balance exercises such as tai chi can reduce your risk of falling especially as you get older.
Swimming, cycling and exercising on machines such as for instance elliptical trainers can offer a great cardiovascular workout, but they do not improve bone health.
Sorry, there was no activity found. Please try a different filter.